In the realm of second language learning and bilingual education, French Immersion has been praised for its innovative and highly successful pedagogical approach. Yet, many students who enroll in the program do not remain in it until its conclusion. The high drop-out rate is revealing some kind of malaise which needs to be investigated.Jeanne-Marie Mannavarayan, as a teacher of French Immersion, has encountered a number of students who experienced severe difficulties in the program, enough to prompt her to this in-depth research. She examines various problems some students encounter in Immersion programs, and challenges and questions the suitability of Immersion for every child. A detailed review of Immersion literature, as well as research from outside traditional education literature, exposes the controversy and ambiguity surrounding this issue. This study considers physiological and biological characteristics of learners, such as auditory ability, verbal memory and grammatical sensitivity, which affect first language proficiency, and may explain second language learning difficulties. It also examines such issues as learners personal goals, emotional needs, internal dynamics and intrinsic aspiration.